The need to define the status of women so that the defense of their human rights was not an empty statement of principles soon became evident. In 1952, the UN’s “Convention on the Political Rights of Women” ratified its right to participate in the political and governmental activities of its countries. In 1966, the “Declaration of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights” emphasized the “recognition of the inherent dignity of all members of the human family” (Preamble). It insisted on the commitment “to ensure men and women the same title to enjoy all the economic, social and cultural rights enunciated” (article 3); “An equal and equal salary for work of equal value, without distinction of any kind; In particular women should be assured of working conditions not inferior to those of men, with equal pay for equal work “(Article 7 (a)). In the same year, the Declaration of “Civil and Political Rights” insisted on recognizing “the right of men and women to marry and found a family if they are of age,” adding that “marriage cannot take place without Free and full consent of the contracting parties “(Article 23) to put an end to the practice of arranged marriages and the sale of daughters to the marital market, present to a greater or lesser extent in practically all cultures and countries. In 1969, the Pact of San José, or “American Convention on Human Rights”, of the OAS, equated the trafficking of women with slavery (article 6).
When the weight of traditional roles imposed on women in 1979 put the idea of equality in check, the UN prosecuted discrimination against women in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
“Discrimination against women violates the principles of equal rights and respect for human dignity; Hinders the participation of women, in the same conditions as men, in the political, social, economic and cultural life of their country; Constitutes an obstacle to the increase of the well-being of society and the family and hampers the full development of the possibilities of women to serve their country and humanity, “he said in his Preamble. It defined discrimination as “any distinction, exclusion or restriction based on sex which has the object or effect of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, regardless of their marital status, on the basis of equality of men And women, on human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural and civil fields or elsewhere “(art. 1). For the first time, the need to combat the stereotyped concepts of male and female roles in education was recognized, assuming that no inequality is biological, but rather the result of a cultural mechanism of systematic inferiority of women.
Finally, on 25 June 1993, the Vienna Declaration and Program of Action was adopted in the framework of the World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna, expressly stipulating that “the rights of women and girls form part Integral and indivisible part of universal human rights. ” Likewise, “all human rights are universal, indivisible and interdependent and interrelated,” so where women’s rights are not respected the whole human rights system is being disrespected.
Since then, women have been able to place in the world public view the legal and cultural situation that derives from their condition, and in particular violence as a form of violation of their human rights. Considered since the Napoleonic Code as a private problem, violence has been presented by the feminist movement as a serious social problem at the global level, of a public nature, with repercussions on physical and emotional health, economy and performance Political, cultural, artistic and educational of women, so it is necessary to prevent, eradicate and punish it.